We know that the sun is a great ball of hot gases, made up of many layers of hot gases. But how do we know this, or any of the other things that make up the sun?
Astronomers have obtained many of their facts about the sun by using special instruments. Some of these instruments are the spectroscope, spectrograph, spectroheliograph, coronagraph, radio telescope and space probe.
The spectroscope is used to study the glowing gases of the sun. It enables them to tell what chemicals produced the colors in the light from the sun. The spectograph enables scientists to keep a permanent record of the colors.
The spectrohelioscope enables astronomers to see hoe different substances are distributed on the sun. And when this instument has photographic equipment attached, it is called a spectroheliograph.
A coronagraph is a special kind of telescope. With a coronagraph astronomers can photograph the sun’s corona without having to wait for an eclipse of the sun. A radio telescope enables scientists to study radio waves that are emitted by the sun.
Because the earth’s atmosphere stops many of the sun’s radiations from reaching the earth, scientists send instruments high up into the atmosphere. Such space probes help them to learn more about the sun.